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The land masses of Africa and
Eurasia, together with adjacent islands, as a single
spatial entity. The concept of Afroeurasia is useful in the study of both
historical and contemporary social phenomena whose
full geographical contexts overlap in one way or another
the conventionally defined continents of Africa, Asia,
and Europe. See also Afro-Eurasia.
society where agriculture, including both crop production
and animal breeding, is the foundation of both subsistence
and surplus wealth. To be distinguished from hunter-forager
and pastoral nomadic societies.
The intentional cultivation of domesticated plants and animals. Beginning about 12,000 years ago, the development of agriculture
permitted unprecedented growth of human population
and the emergence of towns, cities, and the centralized
state. Scholars generally agree that agricultural
economies developed in several parts of Afroeurasia
and the Americas independently of one another.
AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
A disease in which the immune system is weakened and less
able to fight certain infections. AIDS is linked to
the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
A member of any of the native populations of the Americas; an American Indian or Native American.
A doctrine that the vital principle of organic development is immaterial spirit.
“Term coined in late nineteenth century that was associated with a prejudice against Jews and the political, social, and economic actions taken against them.” Jerry Bentley and Herb Ziegler, Traditions
and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the
Past, 3rd ed., vol. 2 (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006).
A professional scholar in a branch of anthropology that documents similarities, differences
and change among various human societies of the past.
Archaeologists work with the material (physical) remains
of societies. Their work
provides the major source of information available
on societies that did not have writing systems. Archaeologists
also provide evidence that supplements written sources.
A privileged or ruling class, usually a small social minority. Often the hereditary nobility or major landowning class in a society. An “aristocrat” is a member of this upper class. Also “aristocratic,” as in “aristocratic government.” “Aristo” is from the Greek, meaning the “best.”
A group of hominid species ancestral to Homo sapiens. Australopithecines
were bipedal but had brains about one third the size
of modern Homo sapiens. These species appeared in
Africa between four and three million years ago and
died out about one million years ago. The best-known
australopithecine remains are those of the creature
named Lucy, who lived in what is today Ethiopia about
3.2 million years ago.
A state of economic self-sufficiency. A country’s policy of establishing economic self-sufficiency and independence.
The mutual transfer of goods or services not involving
the exchange of money. Used as the common form of
exchange before the invention of currency. The practice
of bartering continues to one degree or another in
all modern societies.
A combination of ideas, values, and practices that
serve a society's cultural needs. Belief systems include
all religions, as well as philosophical, ethical,
and moral systems.
Big Bang theory
The cosmological theory that the universe began as
an infinitesimally small, dense, and hot entity. About
13 billion years ago the universe began to expand
and continues to expand today.
The physical ability, characteristic of the genus Homo, to walk upright on two legs, thus freeing the hands to hold and manipulate objects or tools. “Homo sapiens is a bipedal species.”
An infectious disease pandemic that spread from Inner
Eurasia to China, the Mediterranean basin, and Europe
in the mid-fourteenth century. The pandemic may have
taken the lives of a quarter to a third of the populations
of Europe, North Africa, and Southwest Asia. Scholars
have conventionally attributed the pestilence to the
infectious microorganism Yersinia pestis, which
causes plague in both bubonic and pneumonic forms.
Recent research, however, has challenged this theory,
arguing that modern plague and the disease causing
the Black Death are not identical.
A group of socialist revolutionaries which Vladimir
Lenin led in a successful overthrow of the Provisional
Government of Russia in 1917. The Bolsheviks founded
the first Communist state in world history.
Literally, people of the bourg, or town. Men and women of the middle class, the mostly urban, affluent, business-oriented class. Historically, this group was situated socially between the landowning, aristocratic ruling class and the common population.
In Arabic, khalifa. In Sunni Muslim teaching,
the successor to the Prophet Muhammad as rightful
leader of the Muslim community chosen by a consensus
of that community. In the Umayyad (661-750) and Abbasid
(751-1258) dynasties, the Caliphs were also the heads
of state and transmitted their authority to their
A person who designs or constructs maps or charts.
Crops grown for sale on the market rather than exclusively
for local consumption and subsistence.
Industrial chemicals that have contributed to ozone
depletion in the stratosphere.
A form of social and political organization in which the fundamental principle of solidarity is kinship. Clans typically constitute two or more kinship groups within a tribe. Clan organization is common among pastoral nomadic and stateless societies.
The ideological, political, and economic conflict and rivalry between the United States and its allies on one side and the Soviet Union and its supporters on the other side. Competition between the two alliances, which continued from the end of World War II in 1945 to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, was carried on by strategies and tactics that did not involve sustained military conflict or, for the most part, the breaking of diplomatic relations.
The view that the human species has a unique capacity to
accumulate and share complex knowledge and to transmit
this knowledge from one generation to the next.
The systematic exercise of political
and military authority of an intrusive group of foreign
origin over the population of a given territory. Often
involves the colonizer asserting social and cultural
domination of the indigenous population.
The trans-oceanic transmission of plants, animals, microorganisms, and people that followed the establishment of regular contact between Afroeurasia and the Americas in the late fifteenth and the sixteenth centuries. Because life forms evolved separately in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres for millions of years, these transmissions had far-reaching biological, economic, cultural, and social effects on both American and Afroeurasian societies.
A network of merchants of common origin and
shared cultural identity who lived as aliens in foreign
towns to serve as agents and cross-cultural brokers
for fellow merchants who moved along the trade routes
connecting these towns. Examples are the ancient commercial
diaspora of the Phoenicians and the medieval diaspora
of Jewish merchants in the Mediterranean and Indian
Ocean. Also trade diaspora. See diaspora.
type of society characterized by all or most of the
following features: dense population, agricultural
economy, cities, complex social hierarchy, complex
occupational specialization, centralized state, monumental
building, a writing system, and a dominant belief
system. To be distinquished generally from hunter-forager,
pastoral nomadic, and small-scale agricultural societies.
The fundamental laws, either written or unwritten, of a political body or state.
A type of myth that explains how the universe, the
earth, life, and humankind came into being. Most societies
in history have had creation myths.
The theory of biological evolution, including the principle of natural selection, based on the ideas of Charles Darwin (1809-1882).
The study of the size, growth, density, and
other characteristics of human populations.
The scattering of a people of distinct regional,
ethnic, or religious identity from the original homeland
to other parts of the world. A diaspora may result
from either voluntary or forced migration. Examples
include the Jewish diaspora and the dispersion of
people of African descent to the Americas and other
regions as a result of slave trade. See Commercial
The theory that
the legitimacy of a monarch or other head of state
derives from God or other supernatural power. Contrasts
with the modern theory that political sovereignty
is determined by the will of the people.
The material inside
the nucleus of a cell which carries genetic information
for cellular reproduction.
The process whereby humans changed the genetic makeup
of plants and animals by influencing the way they
reproduced, thereby making them more appealing in
taste, size, and nutrition, as well as easier to grow,
process, and cook. Humans could not invent new plant
species, but they could select plants that possessed
certain observable mutations, that is, characteristics
that made them desirable. Farmers could tend these
mutants in ways that ensured their survival. The domestication
of animals through selective breeding followed a similar
environment within which an organism is adapted to
aspect of biology concerned with the relations between
organisms and their environment.
(El Niño Southern Oscillation)
The term describes both warming
of the Pacific Ocean off Peru and Ecuador and the
much more extensive interactions between sea and air
that occur across the equatorial Pacific. An El Niño
event involves warm changes in sea surface temperature
combined with changes in sea level pressure across
the tropical ocean. El Niño events typically
last a year to eighteen months and may occur every
few years. These events may bring torrential rains
and floods to some regions of the world and prolonged
droughts to others.
in or peculiar to a certain area, region, or people,
as an infectious disease.
A city whose commercial activity includes the transshipment or distribution of trade goods.
An individual who organizes, runs, and takes responsibility of a business or other enterprise; a business person; an employer; from the French verb entreprendre, meaning “to undertake” some task.
outbreak of contagious disease affecting a significant
portion of the population of a locality. See also
single-celled or multicellular organism whose cells
contain at least one nucleus.
Animals, plants, and fungi, are all eukaryotes.
An institutional framework for achieving the economic,
judicial, legislative, and social unification of Europe.
Formally created in 1993, the European Union evolved
from the European Community and earlier post-World
War II institutions for cooperation among states.
"An increase in the range of humans wouthout any parallel
increase in the average size or density of human communities,
and consequently with little increase in the complexity
of human societies. It involves the gradual movement
of small groups into new lands, usually adjacent to
and similar to those they have left." (David
Christian, Maps of Time: An Introduction to Big
History [Berkeley: University of California Press,
2004], 190). Processes of extensification were characteristic
of the paleolithic era in world history. See also
The process of growing and harvesting domesticated
plants and animals for food, fiber, and other commodities.
Farming is characteristic of agrarian societies.
A political philosophy, movement, or government that exalts the nation, and often a socially defined race, above the individual and that advocates centralized autocratic government, strict economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition. Derived from the Italian fascismo and referring to a “bundle,” “fasces,” or “group,” specifically to a bundle of birch or elm sticks used in ancient Rome as a symbol of penal authority.
An arc of cultivable land characterized
by wooded hillsides and alluvial valleys which runs northwestward
along the Zagros Mountains of Iran, loops around the
northern rim of the Syrian Desert, and extends southward
parallel to the eastern shore of the Mediterranean.
The Tigris-Euphrates and Jordan river valleys are
also conventionally considered part of the Fertile
Crescent. The earlist physical traces of farming settlements
in the world are located in this region. The Ameican scholar James Harvey Breasted invented the term
Fossil Fuel Revolution
The extensive use of substances extracted
from organic fossils, especially coal, coke, crude
oil, and gasoline, as sources of energy. The fossil
fuel revolution may be closely associated with the
Industrial Revolution, initially with large-scale
burning of coal to generate steam and to produce iron
and steel in England in the later eighteenth century.
In the past century the combustion of fossil fuels
has contributed to increasing atmospheric pollution
and global warming.
The process by which peoples around the world have
become increasingly interconnected through rapid communication
and transport. Globalization involves the
intensification of economic, social, cultural, political,
and biological interchange worldwide, resulting on
the one hand in a general acceleration of change and
on the other in efforts to strengthen the bonds of
identity and community on the local and regional levels.
An increase in the earth's surface temperature caused by a rise in atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide.
An organization having the power to make and enforce
laws and to maintain social order over a territory
or a group of people. A government may regulate society
through a consensus of leaders, through democratic
elections and decision-making, or through authoritarian
force. In a state, the government is the central decision-making
Great Arid Zone
belt of arid and semi-arid land that extends generally
northeastward across Afroeurasia
from the Sahara Desert in the west to Manchuria (northern
China) in the east. The Great Arid Zone has been home
to both pastoral nomadic communities and to farming
societies where water from rivers, wells, and periodic
rainfall is available. In addition to the Sahara,
the large deserts of the Great Arid Zone include the
Arabian Desert, the Great Indian Desert, the Takla
Makan Desert, and the Gobi Desert.
period of global economic contraction that began in
1929 and that lasted in some regions until the late
1930s. The Great Depression affected production, trade,
finance, employment, and standards of living throughout
most of the world.
An extinction event that occurred about 250 million
years ago and that wiped out many marine and land
The massive die-off of American Indian peoples that
followed contact with humans from Afroeurasia beginning
in the late fifteenth century. This mortality, which
in some areas may have reduced populations by 90 per
cent, followed the introduction from Afroeurasia of
infectious disease microorganisms for which American
Indians lacked immunities. Warfare, enslavement, and
social disorder associated with European conquests
in the Americas also contributed to high mortality.
Only in the seventeenth century did indigenous populations
begin to partly recover.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
The total market value of the goods and services that a country produces during a specific period of time. It includes final goods and services, that is, those that are not resold in any form. Per capita GDP in the total value of goods and services divided by the country’s population.
The Arabic term
for the formal pilgrimage to the city of Mecca undertaken
by Muslims as a religious duty. Islamic teaching enjoins
Muslims to make the hajj at least once in
their lifetime if they are physically and financially
The dominance or preponderant influence of one state or group over others. Hegemony may take military, political, economic, or cultural forms. Also “hegemonic,” as in “hegemonic power.”
in evolutionary biology includes all humans and their
early ancestors within the primate family. Hominid
species include the Australopithecines, Homo habilis,
Homo erectus, Neandertal,
and Homo sapiens. Until recently, most scholars agreed
that all hominid
species other than Homo sapiens became extinct about
28,000 years ago. Anthropolgists, however, have begun
to study fossil evidence found in Indonesia that suggests
the existence of a species (named Homo floresiensis)
that may have lived as few as 13,000 years ago.
A hominid species and likely ancestor of Homo sapiens.
Homo erectus was characterized by a prognathic jaw
as well as a large brow and receeding
forehead. This species emerged between and 2.4-1.6
million years ago and may have become extinct about
30,000 years ago.
The scientific name for anatomically
modern humans, a hominid species that emerged between
150,000 and 150,000 years ago. eventually displacing
all other hominid species. The development
of the frontal lobe of the brain was a key factor differentiating this species from other hominid
species. The average human brain is larger than that
of other hominids. The oldest fossils have
been found in Africa. Fossil evidence
and more recent DNA analysis indicates that Homo sapiens
evolved in East Africa and subsequently displaced
the Neanderthals and any other hominid types that
shared the planet.
Also hunter-foragers. Humans that rely on naturally
occurring sources of food, obtained by scavenging,
gathering, or hunting. Because hunter-gatherers require
much more extensive land areas from which to secure
food than do farmers or stock-raisers, their communities
have necessarily been small. Hunter-gatherer communities
were the exclusive form of human economic and social
organization until the emergence of farming about
12,000 years ago. Today, hunter-gatherer groups account
for only a tiny percent of the human population.
Import substitution industrialization (ISI)
An economic policy that promotes substituting locally made products for imported products, usually manufactured goods. National advocates of import substitution typically support domestic industrialization and protective tariffs.
A person who has contracted to perform labor for another for a specified period of time; an institution commonly used to acquire labor for service in European colonies in the Americas between the sixteenth and eighteenth century; the “indenture,” a form of contract, often included a provision to transport the laborer to the place of service free of charge.
Also the Industrial Revolution. The process beginning
in the eighteenth century CE whereby humans exploited
fossil fuels and related technologies to mass produce
goods with machines on an unprecedented scale and
to distribute those goods worldwide. Industrialization
is also associated with an accelerating global population
growth rate , large-scale urbanization, complex technological
advances, and great intensification of human intercommunication
The huge interior land mass of Eurasia, whose dominant features are flat, semi-arid regions of steppe and forest. Inner Eurasia generally corresponds to the territories ruled by the Soviet Union before its collapse, together with Mongolia and parts of western China. Poland and Hungary to the west and Manchuria (northeastern China) to the east may be thought of as Inner Eurasia's borderlands. The northern margins are boreal forest and Arctic tundra. To the south are the Black and Caspian seas and the Himalayas and other mountain ranges. A mountain-free corridor connects Inner Eurasia to Iran.
"New technologies and lifeways that enabled humans
to extract more resources from a given land area."
(David Christian, Maps of Time: An Introduction
to Big History [Berkeley: University of California
Press, 2004], 207). Intensification is associated
with the emergence of agriculture about 12,000 years
ago and with the subsequent unprecedented increase
in the size and density of human populations in some
regions. See also Extensification.
The title of a Turkic or Mongol tribal leader; a common
title of sovereigns in Inner Eurasia. The feminine
form is khatun, a title typically carried by wives and daughters
League of Nations
The predecessor of the United Nations, the League of Nations was
created in 1919 in the aftermath of World War I for
the purpose of mediating international disputes and
preventing armed conflicts between countries.
A political and social philosophy rooted in eighteenth-century Europe
that champions civil liberties, property rights, self-determination,
and the reduction of the state's political and economic
power over the individual. In the twentieth century,
however, liberalism became associated in the United
States and to some extent in Europe with advocacy
of the use of government power to achieve more equitable
distribution of wealth and to further the political
rights and economic status of both the poor and disadvantaged
The probable life span, or the expected age at death, of an individual; a statistical determination of the probable life span of an individual or category of persons.
A form of social and political organization in which the fundamental principle of solidarity is kinship. A lineage is typically a local kinship group of several generations, both living and deceased individuals. Several lineages may constitute a clan.
A system of writing in which signs, or characters represent meanings
rather than the sounds of speech as in an alphabetic
writing. In logographic systems a single character
may represent an entire word or phrase.
Chinese is the most widely used logograhic system
Any warm-blooded vertebrate of the
class Mammalia that feeds its young
with milk from the female and that has body hair,
for example, dogs, apes, and human beings.
A secret operation undertaken in the United States
in 1942 to develop atomic weapons for potential use
in World War II. The U.S. dropped two atomic bombs
on Japan in 1945.
The formal or informal emancipation or freeing of a slave. Historically, manumission was often accomplished by legal action.
A variant of socialism based initially on the ideas of Karl Marx (1818-1883). A theory that economic interests fundamentally determine human behavior, that struggle among socio-economic classes is the drive-wheel of history, and that establishment of a “dictatorship of the proletariat” (working class) will lead to a classless society.
A city in the western Arabian Peninsula and
birthplace of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, in the
seventh century CE. Although Mecca never became a
large city, it is Islam's holiest center and the principal
destination of Muslim pilgrims making the Hajj.
An economic philosophy and set of state policies that encouraged government action to build the country’s wealth by increasing its reserves of precious metals. Mercantilism promoted state intervention to increase exports and limit imports in order to accumulate surpluses of gold. Mercantilist ideas guided European states in the early modern era up to the early nineteenth century, when the liberal ideology of free trade and limited government interference in commerce superseded it.
The part of North America that includes modern Mexico
and the states of Central America. Mesoamerican civilizations included the Olmec, Oaxacan, Teotihuancan,
Maya, Toltec, and Aztec. The combining word "meso,"
meaning "middle," is from the Greek.
A person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry.
The political and administrative center from which an empire is ruled; an empire's "mother country." For example, France was the metropole of the French empire.
The profound changes for humankind and the earth’s natural and physical environment associated primarily with unprecedented global population growth, industrialization, and the accelerating consumption of fossil fuels (fossil fuel revolution). The Modern Revolution got underway in the eighteenth century CE and continues today.
Exclusive control of a product or service in a market; an exclusive privilege to undertake production or trade that is granted by a sovereign state; a firm or corporation that possesses exclusive control of a production process or commercial market, especially involving the ability to manipulate prices.
The doctrine or belief that there is one God.
A rainy season that endures for several months in a particular region. The term also typically refers to the seasonal winds that dominate the Indian Ocean basin. These winds blow generally from southwest to northeast in the summer months (April to October) and from the northeast to the southwest in the winter months (November to March). For thousands of years, knowledge of the monsoon wind cycle has allowed mariners to sail from one part of the Indian Ocean to another with fair speed and predictability.
Multinational corporation (MNC)
A corporation or other business enterprise that has significant production facilities or other fixed assets in more than one country; also, transnational corporation.
A community of people who believe they share a common culture, history, and future destiny. The members of the nation typically believe that they share rights, including the right to occupy a territory and to constitute a sovereign government to rule that territory.
A sovereign state that generally coincides with, or aspires to coincide with, a single national community or nation. A state, on the other hand, may also be multinational, for example, an empire.
The modern ideology based on the principle that an individual's loyalty and dedication to the national community or nation-state surpasses loyalty to any other group interest. The scholar Benedict Anderson characterized the national community as an “imagined community:” its members do not for the most part know one another but nonetheless have common bonds of aspiration and loyalty.
The study of nature
and the physical universe. The intellectual discipline
that prefigured modern science.
An ancient hominid species (Homo neandertalensis)
that lived during the late Pleistocene Age mainly
Asia, and North Africa. The species had more
advanced tool-making ability
than earlier species. Physically Neanderthals were
characterized by thick bodies, a flat forehead, and
a pronounced brow. The species had a brain case similar
in size to humans, but the frontal area was less developed.
There is no evidence that Neanderthals possessed language.
Homo sapiens replaced Neanderthal populations throughout
their habitat, leading to their extinction by about
28,000 years ago.
The period from about 12,000 to 6,000 years ago, when
humans domesticated plants and animals and took up
ways of life centered on agriculture. The invention
of more sophisticated, versatile stone tools also
characterized the period, thus neolithic, or "new
Newly Industrialized Country (NIC)
A country that has developed an industrial economy in the later twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Among the mostly commonly cited NICs are Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore, and Brazil.
A state that is not politically allied with any other state or bloc of states; politically neutral.
Non-governmental organization (NGO)
A voluntary, non-profit citizens' group organized on a local, national, or international scale to undertake a wide variety of projects, including advancement of human rights, social progress, citizen political participation, environmental protection, community development, and international cooperation.
A typically multi-storied memorial structure
built in connection with a temple or monastery, usually
The era from approximately 2.5 million to 12,000 years
ago when Homo sapiens and its hominid ancestors relied
on a technology principally of tools and weapons fashioned
principally of stone. Scholars commonly divide the
paleolithic into three periods: lower (2.5 million
- 300,000 years ago), middle (300,000 - 40,000 years
ago), and upper (40,000 - 12,000 years ago). In each
of these periods humans or their ancestors produced
increasingly varied and useful stone technologies.
An expert on animal
life of the distant past, studied mainly from evidence
of fossilized remains.
An outbreak of contagious disease that is not confined
to a single locality but spreads from one locality
to the next, possibly over a great distance. The Black
Death of the mid-fourteenth century was a pandemic
that reached across Afroeurasia. The influenza pandemic
of 1918 was worldwide. See also Epidemic.
An economy and way
of life centered on the raising of domesticated animals
such as cattle, horses, sheep, or camels. This economy is an adaption to arid or semi-arid land,
such as the steppes of Inner Eurasia, where farming
is either limited or impossible. Pastoral nomadic
communities typically move their herds or flocks seasonally
in search of pasture and water. Pastoral nomadic societies
probably emerged in the third millennium BCE.
A society in which males are socially and politically dominant
over women. All complex societies have been more or
less patriarchal, though in the past two centuries
women have in many part of the world gained legal
and civil rights that have helped to constrain patriarchal
attitudes and behavior.
Mongol Peace; the period from approximately 1260 to 1350
CE when Mongol states maintained order in a large
part of Eurasia and when commercial and cultural exchange
across Afroeurasia intensified.
In the study of history, periodization is the dividing or categorizing of time into separate sections. Historians periodize the past for a number of reasons. “One is simply to identify and isolate chunks of time in order to study them one by one, since all periods cannot be studied simultaneously. A second is to distinguish one cluster of interrelated historical events from another in order to discover patterns of change. A third is to identify significant shifts in those patterns in terms of discontinuities or turning points, which serve as the start and end of periods. A four is to highlight trends or events that appear dominant or important during a particular span of time.” (Ross E. Dunn, ed., The
New World History: A Teacher’s Companion [Boston: Bedford St. Martin’s, 2000], 359.)
"An economic and political order centering on slave plantations in the New World tropics." Philip D. Curtin, The Rise and Fall of the Plantation Complex (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990), ix.
The science dealing
with the forces or conditions within the earth that
cause movements in the earth's crust, notably the
study of when and how large plates, or sections of
the earth's crust moved, separated, and came together
to form large land masses, or continents; the study
of continental drift; because large land masses have
in geologic time been joined or separated (sometimes
by wide oceans) over spans of millions of years, the
history of continental drift is closely related to
A political or social ideology emphasizing advancement of the rights and interests of common people. From the Latin word populus, the people.
period of North and South American history before
Christopher Columbus initiated sustained intercommunication
between the Americas and Afroeurasia; history of the
Western Hemisphere up to 1492; sometimes labeled the
Primary and secondary sources
Primary sources are items of historical evidence, including both written documents (legal contracts, government papers, personal letters, bills of sale, biographies) and artifacts (material objects, works of art, elements of language) that were generated during or relatively close to the historical period being studied. Secondary sources are documents, mainly books, articles, and illustrations, based on primary sources and generated some time after the historical event which they describe or interpret.
The order of mammals that are large-brained, live
mostly in trees, and have the ability to see three-dimensionally. This order includes
humans, all hominids, apes, chimpanzees, and monkeys.
An economic philosophy or policy advocating government protection of domestic agriculture and industries from foreign competition by institution of tariffs, quotas, or other restrictions on foreign imports.
A drastic change in a political system, institution, condition, or idea. A revolution may be political, social, economic, or cultural.
The intellectual and cultural movement centered in
Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
which led directly to the emergence of the modern
sciences; the method of scientific investigation was
characterized by systematic observation of natural
and physical phenomena, controlled experimentation,
and the rendering of hypotheses and conclusions in
mathematical formulas. The Scientific Revolution built
on the great store of knowledge that had accumulated
in Afroeurasia, notably in China, India, Southwest
Asia, and North Africa, during preceding millennia.
Pertaining to worldly, as opposed to supernatural or religious, beliefs, values and behavior. Any movement that questions or rejects religious faith or the social influence of religious organizations and hierarchies. Secularization is any social process that strives to imbue society with secular values. In the Christian tradition, the term “secular” is also used to refer to members of the clergy who live “in the world,” that is, who have not taken monastic vows or live in a monastery.
The practice of residing iving in a specific locality,
as opposed to a mobile way of life centered on hunting
and gathering or on pastoral nomadism. Farming societies
are necessarily sedentary.
believed to have power to communicate
with supernatural forces and through these interventions
to heal, bring blessings, or foretell the future.
Belief in the power of shamans, or shamanism, has
been a mark of traditional religion among pastoral
nomadic peoples of Inner Eurasia, though the term
has been applied throughout the world to local healers,
doctors, diviners, and others believed to have the
ability to communicate with the world beyond.
A 4,000 mile-long complex of trade routes that ran
generally east and west across Inner Eurasia and that
carried goods, people, technologies, and religious
ideas between major centers of complex society. The
term refers to the silk textiles that constituted
an important item in overland trade from China to
India, Persia, and the Mediterranean lands.
The state of an individual held in servitude as the property, or chattel, of another individual, a household, or the state; the practice of owning slaves. The legal, economic, moral, and personal condition of slaves have varied widely in history from one society to another.
The region of
Afroeurasia extending from the eastern coast of the
Mediterranean Sea to Afghanistan, including Turkey
and the Arabian Peninsula. The common term for this
region has conventionally been the Middle East or
Near East. Many scholars, however, now regard these
expressions as obsolete, except in the context of
the history of the past century or so, because these
terms evoke a specifically European perspective on
the world, that is, that all of Afroeurasia may be
thought of as constituting two primal zones, the West
(Europe) and the East (all lands east of Europe).
A state’s authority, claimed to be absolute in matters of law within its own borders. Members of the United Nations, for example, are sovereign states. A monarch is also sometimes referred to as the “sovereign.”
Standard of living
The level of subsistence or comfort that a group or individual is able to maintain in daily life; an economy’s ability to produce the material goods and services that individuals want or need; a society’s average per capita gross domestic product.
population and territory over which a central government
Flat or rolling grassland characterized by semi-aridity. Equivalent to what Americans call "prairie" and Argentineans call "pampas."
A title designating
rulership of a Muslim state, usually implying administrative
and military authority as opposed to religious leadership.
A sultanate is a state headed by a sultan.
A blend or combination of different beliefs and practices, usually religious; the adoption of one group’s religious or other cultural beliefs and practices by another group.
A form of authoritarian government in which the political
and military leaders attempt to intervene in and control
both the public and private lives of citizens, typically
through coercion and violence. The Soviet Union
under Stalin and Nazi Germany under Hitler are the
prime examples of totalitarian government in the twentieth
A form of social and political organization in which the fundamental principle of solidarity is kinship. The members of a tribe claim to be descended from a common ancestor. A tribe is typically the largest group in a region claiming shared descent. Tribal organization is common among pastoral nomadic and stateless societies. In tribal societies, individuals identify primarily with kinship groups rather than with a specific geographical territory.
period from about 40,000 to 12,000 years ago when
humans invented a range of new specialized tools,
including fine, multi-purpose stone blades, that gave
men and women increasing control over their local
environments. Although recent
evidence suggests that humans acquired symbolic language
and the capacity for artistic expression in Africa
between 75,000 and 90,000 years ago in Africa, the
Upper Paleolithic witnessed numerous technical and
social breakthroughs, including increases in the size
of hunter-gatherer communities; larger, more permanent
dwellings, the construction of boats, and production
of jewelry, sculpted images, and cave paintings.
The growth of urban
areas, or cities; the movement of people from rural
communities to cities.
A belief system that embraces people of diverse languages
and cultural traditions and that has had significant
influence on the course of human history. The major
world religions are Buddhism, Christianity, Daoism, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism. Confucianism
is a major belief system, though some scholars reject
classifying it as a religion because it addresses
mainly moral and ethical issues rather than the spiritual
or supernatural realm.