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National Standards for History


The study of history, as noted earlier, rests on knowledge of facts, dates, names, places, events, and ideas. In addition, true historical understanding requires students to engage in historical thinking: to raise questions and to marshal solid evidence in support of their answers; to go beyond the facts presented in their textbooks and examine the historical record for themselves; to consult documents, journals, diaries, artifacts, historic sites, works of art, quantitative data, and other evidence from the past, and to do so imaginatively--taking into account the historical context in which these records were created and comparing the multiple points of view of those on the scene at the time. 

Real historical understanding requires that students have opportunity to create historical narratives and arguments of their own. Such narratives and arguments may take many forms--essays, debates, and editorials, for instance. They can be initiated in a variety of ways. None, however, more powerfully initiates historical thinking than those issues, past and present, that challenge students to enter knowledgeably into the historical record and to bring sound historical perspectives to bear in the analysis of a problem. 

Historical understanding also requires that students thoughtfully read the historical narratives created by others. Well-written historical narratives are interpretative, revealing and explaining connections, change, and consequences. They are also analytical, combining lively storytelling and biography with conceptual analysis drawn from all relevant disciplines. Such narratives promote essential skills in historical thinking. 

Reading such narratives requires that students analyze the assumptions--stated and unstated--from which the narrative was constructed and assess the strength of the evidence presented. It requires that students consider the significance of what the author included as well as chose to omit--the absence, for example, of the voices and experiences of other men and women who were also an important part of the history of their time. Also, it requires that students examine the interpretative nature of history, comparing, for example, alternative historical narratives written by historians who have given different weight to the political, economic, social, and/or technological causes of events and who have developed competing interpretations of the significance of those events. 

Students engaged in activities of the kinds just considered will draw upon skills in the following five interconnected dimensions of historical thinking: 

1.     Chronological Thinking 

2.     Historical Comprehension 

3.     Historical Analysis and Interpretation 

4.     Historical Research Capabilities 

5.     Historical Issues-Analysis and Decision-making 

These skills, while presented in five separate categories, are nonetheless interactive and mutually supportive. In conducting historical research or creating a historical argument of their own, for example, students must be able to draw upon skills in all five categories. Beyond the skills of conducting their research, students must, for example, be able to comprehend historical documents and records, analyze their relevance, develop interpretations of the document(s) they select, and demonstrate a sound grasp of the historical chronology and context in which the issue, problem, or events they are addressing developed. 

In short, these five sets of skills, developed in the following pages as the five Standards in Historical Thinking, are statements of the outcomes that students need to achieve. They are not mutually exclusive when put into practice, nor do they prescribe a particular teaching sequence to be followed. Teachers will draw upon all these Thinking Standards, as appropriate, to develop their teaching plans and to guide students through challenging programs of study in history. 

Finally, it is important to point out that these five sets of Standards in Historical Thinking are defined in the following pages largely independent of historical content in order to specify the quality of thinking desired for each. It is essential to understand, however, that these skills do not develop, nor can they be practiced, in a vacuum. Every one of these skills requires specific historical content in order to function--a relationship that is made explicit in Chapters 3 and 4, which presents the standards integrating historical understandings and thinking for history for grades 5-12. 

Contents of Historical Thinking Standards in History for Grades 5-12

Standard 1
Chronological Thinking

Details of Standard 1


A. Distinguish between past, present, and future time. 

B. Identify the temporal structure of a historical narrative or story.

C. Establish temporal order in constructing historical narratives of their own.

D. Measure and calculate calendar time.

E. Interpret data presented in time lines.

F. Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration. 

G. Compare alternative models for periodization.

Standard 2
Historical Comprehension

Details of Standard 2

A. Identify the author or source of the historical document or narrative and assess its credibility.

B. Reconstruct the literal meaning of a historical passage.

C. Identify the central question(s).

D. Differentiate between historical facts and historical interpretation.

E. Read historical narratives imaginatively.

F. Appreciate historical perspectives.

G. Draw upon data in historical maps.

H. Utilize visual, mathematical, and quantitative data.

I. Draw upon visual, literary, and musical sources.


Standard 3
Historical Analysis and Interpretation

Details of Standard 3

A. Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas.

B. Consider multiple perspectives.

C. Analyze cause-and-effect relationships.

D. Draw comparisons across eras and regions in order to define enduring issues.

E. Distinguish between unsupported expressions of opinion and informed hypotheses grounded in historical evidence.

F. Compare competing historical narratives.

G. Challenge arguments of historical inevitability.

H. Hold interpretations of history as tentative.

I. Evaluate major debates among historians.

J. Hypothesize the influence of the past.

Standard 4
Historical Analysis and Interpretation 

Details of Standard 4

A. Formulate historical questions.

B. Obtain historical data from a variety of sources.

C. Interrogate historical data.

D. Identify the gaps in the available records and marshal contextual knowledge and perspectives of the time and place.

E. Employ quantitative analysis.

F. Support interpretations with historical evidence.

Standard 5
Historical Issues-Analysis and Decision-Making

Details of Standard 5

A. Identify issues and problems in the past.

B. Marshal evidence of antecedent circumstances.

C. Identify relevant historical antecedents.

D. Evaluate alternative courses of action.

E. Formulate a position or course of action on an issue.

F. Evaluate the implementation of a decision.